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GEO 103
Environment and Society
Spring ****
Writing Assignment #2
Global Warming Futures

Write an essay answering the questions provided below by drawing on my climate change lectures, The
Madhouse Effect, pertinent sections from The Great Acceleration, and the following sources. You don’t
necessarily need to read all of these cover to cover (or for videos, watch from beginning to end), but you
do need to demonstrate your familiarity with the parts most pertinent to this assignment.

Ifrain, Umair. 2018. “A major new climate report slams the door on wishful thinking,” Vox. Oct. 7, 2018.
https://www.vox.com/2018/10/5/17934174/climate-change-global-warming-un-ipcc-report-1-5-degrees
Plummer, Brad. 2017. “Scientists made a detailed “roadmap” for meeting the Paris climate goals. It’s eyeopening.” Vox. March 24, 2017. https://www.vox.com/energy-andenvironment/2017/3/23/15028480/roadmap-paris-climate-goals

Roberts, David. 2017. “There’s a huge gap between the Paris climate change goals and reality.” Vox,
November 6,, 2017. https://www.vox.com/energy-and-environment/2017/10/31/16579844/climate-gapunep-2017

Roberts, David. 2018. “The world’s bleak climate situation, in 3 charts,” Vox. May 1, 2018.
https://www.vox.com/energy-and-environment/2018/5/7/17306008/climate-change-global-warmingscenarios-ambition

Roberts, David. 2018. “What genuine, no-bullshit ambition on climate change would look like,” Vox.
Oct. 8, 2018. https://www.vox.com/energy-and-environment/2018/5/7/17306008/climate-change-globalwarming-scenarios-ambition
PBS Frontline. 2012 “Climate of Doubt.” October 23, 2012.
https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/frontline/film/climate-of-doubt/

• A bit dated. But still an invaluable resource explaining climate-change denialism and political
obstacles to action.
• Also make sure to (re)read the chapter on denial from Mann’s The Madhouse Effect. In your
paper, you could use information from that chapter and this video in your paper.
National Climate Assessment, 2018. “Climate Change Impacts in the United States,”
https://nca2018.globalchange.gov/
• Take the time to explore this online source. Throughout the site, you’ll see graphs and images
that show climate-related impacts under a low-emission scenario (i.e., we take significant
steps to lower greenhouse gas emissions) or high-emission scenario (i.e., we did little or
nothing to lower greenhouse gas emissions).
• In particular, see the Executive Summaries throughout the report. These are designed to—you
guessed it! J—summarize information within various sections.
• Make sure to explore the Responses section of the report, too. The information there will help
you discuss what was or was not done to address climate change in the coming century.
Use only these sources listed and others from the course!

Choose One Topic:环境与社会论文代写

1). The year is 2100. The planet has warmed to 2 degrees C above pre-industrial levels but has avoided
apocalyptic climate change of 4 degrees C. You are an environmental geographer trying to understand
what changed in the 21st century that enabled the world’s nations to avert the worst-case scenario. During
your investigations, you come across evidence that policymakers in 2019 read The Madhouse Effect as
well as other environmental texts and took the key lessons of these books, reports, and videos to heart.
What were the insights that people learned from those books/articles/videos? How, specifically, did they
overcome obstacles to action and implement these changes and contain warming to 2 degrees C? And
what sort of environmental and social changes came about because of this 2 degrees C of warming?

OR

2). The year is 2100. The world has warmed 4 degrees C. Many of the worst-case scenarios predicted by
scientists and climate activists eighty years ago have come true. (Hint: See my lectures, discussion
sections, and the articles/videos above for the worst-case scenarios.) You are an environmental
geographer trying to understand what went wrong. Despite warnings from climate activists, climatologists
(such as Michael Mann), and some politicians, they were unable to influence either policymakers or the
public to make lasting change.
What obstacles to action were they not able to surmount? What have been the environmental and social
consequences of this massive warming? What went wrong and why? How did environmental, political
and cultural factors work together to block the significant changes necessary to limit warming?

Structuring the Essay 环境与社会论文代写

You might be a bit confused how to begin and structure your essay. There are many ways you could write
this paper, but you might consider structuring it this way:
• In your opening paragraph, describe what the world looks like in 2100. This view of the
world in 2100 will vary depending on whether you chose the more optimistic or pessimistic
scenario.
• In the rest of the paper, explain why people were or were not able to lower carbon emissions.
In class lectures, we discussed many obstacles to action. You might devote paragraphs to
some or all of these obstacles and whether people and nations were able to surmount these
obstacles and limit warming to only 2 degrees C or if they were not and the planet warmed to
4 degrees C
Your paper should be…
• 5-pages long, typed, double-spaced, 1” margins, 12-point font.
• Cite books, articles, and videos using the Chicago Manual of Style format. Include a
bibliography.
• Include a title for the paper—ideally something interesting that also suggests what the paper is
about.
• Please number your pages and include your name, section day and time, and teaching assistant
(Sohrob Aslamy or James Lindberg).
• ** Write your essay in the past tense. You’re pretending you live in 2100 and writing about
events and movements during the previous century.
Make sure to keep a backup copy of your paper saved on your computer, the cloud, flash drive, etc.!We will be happy to help you with your essay. Professor Wilson and your teaching assistants, Sohrob or
James, will have office hours online via Blackboard Collaborate in the weeks before the paper is due (we
may have longer office hours, too). We are happy to discuss your papers or read outlines. Unfortunately,
we cannot read drafts. There are simply too many students for us to read and comment on early versions
of the assignment. But we are happy to discuss the assignment with you and read/comment on outlines.
Meeting with us online or emailing us is a very good idea, especially if you did poorly on the first essay.

GEO 103
环境与社会
写作作业#2
全球变暖的未来

根据我的气候变化讲座、疯人院效应、《大加速》中的相关章节以及以下来源,写一篇文章回答以
下问题。你不一定需要从头到尾阅读所有这些内容(或者观看视频),但你需要证明你对与本任务
最相关的部分的熟悉程度。
Ifrain,Umair。2018.沃克斯说:“一份重要的新气候报告打破了一厢情愿的大门。
普卢默,布拉德。2017.科学家们为实现巴黎气候目标制定了详细的“路线图”。令人大开眼界。
大卫·罗伯茨。2017.“巴黎气候变化目标和现实之间存在巨大差距。
大卫·罗伯茨。2018.“世界暗淡的气候状况,在 3 张图表中,”沃克斯说。2018 年 5 月 1 日。

大卫·罗伯茨。2018.沃克斯说:“关于气候变化,什么是真正的、不扯淡的雄心壮志呢?
• 有点过时了。但仍然是解释气候变化否认主义和行动的政治障碍的宝贵资源。
• 还要确保(重新)阅读曼恩的《疯人院效应》中关于否认的章节。在你的论文中,你可
以使用那一章和这篇视频中的信息。
《2018 年国家气候评估》。“气候变化对美国的影响”,https://nca2018.globalchange.gov/
• 花点时间探索一下这个在线资源。在整个站点中,您将看到图表和图像,显示低排放
情景下与气候相关的影响(即,我们采取重大措施降低温室气体排放)或高排放情况
(即,我们在减少温室气体排放方面做得很少或什么也没做。
• 具体而言,请参见整个报告的内容提要。这些是为了——你猜对了!各部分中的
信息。• 请务必查看报告的“回应”部分。那里的信息将帮助你讨论在未来的一个世纪里为解决
气候变化做了什么或没有做什么。
仅使用列出的这些来源和课程中的其他来源!

选择一个主题:环境与社会论文代写
1). 年份是 2100.地球比工业化前的水平上升了 2 摄氏度,但避免了 4 摄氏度的世界末日气候变
化。你是一名环境地理学家,试图了解 21 世纪发生了什么变化,使世界各国避免了最坏的情况。
在您的调查中,您发现了证据,表明 2019 年的决策者阅读了《疯人院效应》以及其他环境文本,
并牢记了这些书籍、报告和视频中的关键教训。
人们从那些书/文章/视频中学到了什么真知灼见?具体来说,他们是如何克服行动障碍并实施这些
变化,并将气温上升控制在 2 摄氏度的?气温上升 2 摄氏度会导致什么样的环境和社会变化?

或者

2). 年份是 2100.世界变暖了 4 摄氏度。八十年前科学家和气候活动家预测的许多最坏情况已经实
现。(提示:最糟糕的情况见我的讲座、讨论部分和上面的文章/视频。你是一名环境地理学家,试
图了解哪里出了问题。尽管气候活动家、气候学家(如迈克尔·曼)和一些政治家发出了警告,但他
们无法影响决策者或公众做出持久的改变。
他们未能克服哪些行动障碍?这场大规模变暖的环境和社会后果是什么?哪里出了问题,为什
么?环境、政治和文化因素是如何共同阻止限制变暖所必需的重大变化的?
构建文章 环境与社会论文代写
你可能对如何开始和组织你的文章有点困惑。你可以用多种方法写这篇论文,但你可以考虑这样
组织:
• 在你的开篇,描述一下 2100 年的世界是什么样子。这种对 2100 年世界的看法会因你选择
更乐观还是更悲观的情景而异。
• 在论文的其余部分,解释为什么人们能够或不能减少碳排放。在课堂上,我们讨论了许多
行动的障碍。你可以用一些段落来描述一些或所有这些障碍,以及人们和国家是否能够克
服这些障碍,将变暖限制在 2 摄氏度以内,或者如果不能,地球变暖到 4 摄氏度
你的论文应该是…
• 5 页长,打字,双倍行距,1 “边距,12 磅字体。
• 使用芝加哥风格手册格式引用书籍、文章和视频。附上参考书目。
• 为论文加上一个标题——最好是一些有趣的东西,也能暗示论文的内容。
• 请给你的页面编号,包括你的名字、部门日期和时间以及助教(索罗布·阿斯拉米或詹姆
斯·林德伯格)。
• **用过去式写你的文章。你假装生活在 2100 年,写下上个世纪的事件和运动。
请确保在您的计算机、云、闪存驱动器等设备上保存您的论文备份。
我们很乐意帮助你写论文。威尔逊教授和你的助教,索罗布或詹姆斯,将在论文到期前的几周通
过黑板协作在线办公时间(我们可能也有更长的办公时间)。我们很乐意讨论你的论文或阅读提
纲。不幸的是,我们不能阅读草稿。学生太多了,我们无法阅读和评论作业的早期版本。但是我
们很乐意与您讨论这项任务,并阅读/评论大纲。在网上和我们见面或者给我们发邮件是一个非常
好的主意,尤其是如果你第一篇文章写得不好的话。